The hottest scientists reproduce the formation of

2022-09-19
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American scientists reproduce the formation of solar ion rings in the laboratory for the first time. The energy released by solar flare brightening is equivalent to the total energy of 100000-1million strong volcanic eruptions, or equivalent to the explosion of tens of billions of million ton hydrogen bombs; A large flare can release huge energy in 10 to 20 minutes. In addition to the sudden brightening of the local solar surface, the flare is mainly manifested in the sudden enhancement of the radiation flux from the radio band to the X-ray; There are many kinds of radiation emitted by flares. In addition to visible light, there are ultraviolet, X-ray and gamma ray, infrared and radio radiation, shock waves, high-energy particle flows, and even ultra-high-energy cosmic rays

According to foreign media reports, solar flares can cause great damage to the earth, but scientists have not yet fully understood how this phenomenon formed. Now, a research team at the California Institute of technology has reproduced the precursor plasma ring of solar flares in the laboratory for the first time. With the achievement of this research result, scientists are taking another important step forward in the way of solving the mystery of solar flares

American scientists hope their research can improve space weather prediction. Paul belan, a professor of Applied Physics at the California Institute of technology, compared the study to Hurricane research. He saved the maximum value and said, "we are studying the mechanism of plasma rings, which can deepen our understanding of space weather. If you don't understand the phenomena of high-pressure and low-pressure fronts before the formation of hurricanes, you can't predict hurricanes. The same is true of solar flares."

the research team hopes that their findings can improve the warning of solar storms. "It will take some time for the plasma emitted by the sun to reach the earth. Through further research, it is possible to issue an early warning two days before the occurrence of large-scale solar flares," belan said The 3.4 plasma ring detection and analysis by scanning electron microscope in the laboratory of California Institute of technology was carried out by belan and graduate student Eve Stetson. The research findings were published in the journal Physical Review Letters on August 13. According to their research, two kinds of magnetic forces control the behavior of the plasma ring. Plasma is a hot ionized gas

belan said, "one kind of magnetic force expands the radius of the plasma ring to increase its size. The other kind of magnetic force causes the plasma to be sprayed continuously at both ends of the plasma ring. The plasma sprayed by the latter kind of magnetic force can maintain the density when the plasma ring is expanded." This process is like squeezing toothpaste into a tube from both ends. The toothpaste itself has no magnetic force, which must come from the inside of the tube

the plasma ring studied by Stetson and belan is produced by a pulsed dynamic magnetic plasma gun. "In the cabin, the magnetic field, gas and high pressure appear in an instant. We use a high-speed camera with an optical filter to capture the behavior of the plasma," Stetson said Through the color coding of the injected plasma, the optical filter can vividly show that the equidistance at both ends of the plasma ring is only 10000 years old. Before that, no one has ever used this technology for research

in the picture they shot, the red plasma flows into the ring from one end, while the blue plasma flows into the ring from the other end. "In each experiment, you can only see the light from the hydrogen side or the nitrogen side in the image. However, this kind of experiment has high reproducibility, allowing us to superimpose the images taken by the automatic process of the pressure testing machine in each experiment, and finally see the plasma at both ends in one image," Stetson said Next, belan's lab will study how the two rings interact. "What we want to determine is whether they will merge to form a larger ring. Some people believe that the larger plasma rings on the sun are formed in this way," he said

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